U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Updated Bottom Up Solution for Triacylglycerols

    This Microsoft Excel workbook (2.712 Mb) contains spreadsheets that implement the Updated Bottom Up Solution for Triacylglycerols that allows Critical Ratios that provide structural information from mass spectrometry to be used to reconstitute the original mass spectra from which they came. It contains spreadsheets that use the non-nested equations (Critical Limits explicitly shown), as well as spreadsheets that used the nested equations (Case determinations made with Critical Limits not explicitly shown).

    Quantification of TAGs by LC-MS

      This Microsoft Excel workbook contains spreadsheets for calculating response-factor normalized triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions from response factors derived from GC-FID of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). This workbook (1.160 Mb) reads the output from a ThermoScientific XCalibur Quan Browser •Excel Short Report• (In XCalibur: File • Export data to Excel • Export Short Excel report), and requires input of the FA composition determined by GC-FID (manually entered or read from Excel spreadsheet [provided upon request]).

      Isotope-corrected Critical Ratio calculations

        This Microsoft Excel workbook (168.259 Mb) calculates Critical Ratios for triacylglycerols based on manually entered mass spectra, with isotope correction by isotope patterns calculated at www.ChemCalc.org. Average mass spectra across integrated peaks are manually entered according to the instructions in the Supplementary Material to the publication 'The Updated Bottom Up Solution for Mass Spectrometry of Soybean Oil in a Dietary Supplement Gelcap".

        Data from: Chondroitin sulfate disaccharides modified the structure and function of the murine gut microbiome under healthy and stressed conditions

          Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been widely used for medical and nutraceutical purposes due to its roles in maintaining tissue structural integrity. We investigated if CS disaccharides may act as a bioactive compound and modulate gut microbial composition in mice. Our data show that CS disaccharides supplementation for 16 days significantly reduced blood LPS in the mice experiencing exhaustive exercise stress. CS disaccharides partially restored total fecal short-chain fatty acids from the level significantly repressed in mice under the stress. Our findings demonstrated that CS was likely butyrogenic and resulted in a significant increase in fecal butyrate concentration. CS disaccharides had a profound impact on gut microbial composition, affecting the abundance of 13.6% and 7.3% Operational Taxonomic Units in fecal microbial communities in healthy and stressed mice, respectively. CS disaccharides reduced the prevalence of inflammatory Proteobacteria. Together, our findings demonstrated that CS may ameliorate stress-induced intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, CS significantly increased intestinal *Bacteroides acidifaciens* population, indirectly exerting its immunomodulatory effect on the intestine. CS disaccharides had a significant impact on a broad range of biological pathways under stressed condition, such as ABC transporters, two-component systems, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results will facilitate the development of CS as a bioactive nutraceutical.

          School Breakfast Program - Participation and Meals Served

            This data provides historical summaries of total participation and meals served as part of the USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) School Breakfast Program. The summary data begins in 1969, the year that FNS was established to administer USDA's nutrition assistance program. The School Breakfast Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in public and nonprofit private schools and residential child care institutions. The School Breakfast Program is administered at the Federal level by the Food and Nutrition Service. At the State level, the program is usually administered by State education agencies, which operate the program through agreements with local school food authorities in more than 89,000 schools and institutions.