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    The findmap.f90 program aligns sequence reads to reference map, calls previous variants, and identifies new variants.


      The findhap.f90 program finds haplotypes and imputes genotypes using multiple chip sets and sequence data.


        Unique Pattern Informative Combinations (UPIC), a decision tool for the cost-effective design of DNA fingerprinting/genotyping experiments using simple-sequence/tandem repeat (SSR/STR) markers.

        IncA-C Alignment

          IncA/C plasmids are a class of plasmids from Enterobacteraciae that are relatively large (49 to >180 kbp), are readily transferred by conjugation, and carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Reconstruction of the phylogeny of these plasmids has been difficult because of the high rate of remodeling by recombination-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We hypothesized that evaluation of nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the rate of HGT would help to develop a clock to show if anthropic practices have had significant influences on the lineages of the plasmid. A system was developed to rapidly sequence up to 191 known open27 reading-frames from each of 39 recently isolated IncA/C plasmids from a diverse panel of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. With these data plus sequences from Genbank we were able to distinguish six distinct lineages that had extremely low numbers of polymorphisms within each lineage, especially among the largest group designated as Lineage 1. Two regions, each about half the plasmid in size, could be distinguished with a separate lineal pattern. The distribution of Lineage 1 showed that it has migrated extremely rapidly with fewer polymorphisms than can be expected in two-thousand years. Remodeling by frequent HGT was evident with a pattern that appeared to have the highest rate just upstream of the putative conjugation origin of transfer (ori-T). It seems likely that when an IncA/C plasmid is transferred also adjacent to a multiple antimicrobial resistance gene cassette.


            OTUshuff is a set of tools written in Perl to identify and correct for the presence of pseudo-diversity in contrasts between microbial communities. The variably weighted Odum dissimilarity (DwOdum) allows for down-weighting the influence of either abundant or rare taxa in calculating a measure of similarity between two communities. We show that down-weighting the influence of rare taxa can be used to minimize pseudo b-diversity arising from incomplete sampling. Down-weighting the influence of abundant taxa can increase the sensitivity of hypothesis testing. OTUshuff is an associated test for identifying the presence of pseudo-diversity in pairwise community contrasts.


              The Russian-English Agricultural Atlas is the world’s most comprehensive source of information on the geographic distribution of plant-based agriculture in Russia and neighboring countries. The Atlas contains 1500 maps that illustrate the distribution of 100 crops, 560 wild crop relatives, 640 diseases, pests and weeds, and 200 environmental parameters. Additionally, the Atlas provides detailed biological descriptions, illustrations, metadata and reference lists. Currently, individual maps can be downloaded and viewed using freely available AgroAtlas GIS Utility software, which can also be downloaded at this site.

              Data from: Long-Distance Transportation Causes Temperature Stress in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

                To test how temperature may contribute to bee (*Apis mellifera*) transportation stress, temperature sensors were placed in hives in different locations and orientations on the trailer during shipping. Colony size prior to shipping significantly contributed to loss of population immediately after shipping which contributed to colony failure with smaller colonies more likely to fail and fail faster. Colony size also affects thermoregulation and temperature stress.

                Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II

                  This code is implements the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) in the R statistical programming language. The function is theoretically applicable to any number of objectives without modification. The function automatically detects the number of objectives from the population matrix used in the function call. NSGA-II has been applied in ARS research for automatic calibration of hydrolgic models (whittaker link) and economic optimization (whittaker link).

                  Imperfect SSR Finder

                    The Imperfect SSR Finder is an interactive website to help you find imperfect (and perfect) SSRs. You can test small snippets or upload large files, change the lengths and types of the SSRs your are looking for, and create output with SSRs in inverted case and/or color highlights. A tabular information file is also created in .CSV format, for easy import into any spreadsheet program.