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Data from: Sporobolus stapfianus: Insights into desiccation tolerance in the resurrection grasses from linking transcriptomics to metabolomics

    Non-targeted metabolomics, combined with transcriptomics via a NimbleGen array platform, are used to study how gene expression and metabolite profiles can be linked to generate a more detailed mechanistic appreciation of the cellular response to both desiccation and rehydration in the C4 resurrection grass, *Sporobolus stapfianus* Gandoger, as a member of a group of important forage grasses.

    De novo transcriptome assembly and annotations for wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella)

      To study the impact of wheat streak mosaic virus on global gene expression in wheat curl mite, we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly using 50 x 50 paired end reads from the Illumina HiSeq 2500. Reads were assembled using Trinity (version 2.0.6) and contigs greater than 200 nt were retained. All assembled transcripts were annotated using the Trinotate pipeline using blastp searches against the Swiss-prot/Uni-Prot database, blastx searches against the Swiss-prot/Uni-Prot databases, HMM searches against the Pfam-A database, blastp searches against the non-redundant protein database, and signalP and tmHMM predictions. To reduce noise from low abundance transcripts not well supported by the data, we filtered the assembly to retain only those transcripts with TPM values >=0.5.

      Annotations of Unigenes Assembled from Schizaphis graminum and Sipha flava

        Transcriptomes were assembled de novo from pools of adult aphids that were feeding on sorghum and switchgrass. Reads from all replicates were pooled, normalized in silico to 25X coverage, and assembled using Trinity. Only the most abundant isoform for each unigene was retained for annotation and unigenes with transcripts per million mapped reads (TPM) less than 0.5 were removed from the dataset. The remaining unigenes were annotated using Trinotate with BLASTP comparisons against the Swiss-Prot/UniProt database. In addition, Pfam-A assignments were computed using hmmer, signal peptide predictions were performed using SignalP, and transmembrane domain predictions were performed using tmHMM. Gene ontology (GO assignments) were retrieved from Trinotate using the highest scoring BLASTp matches as queries.

        Data from: Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Loci Associated with Plant Growth and Forage Production under Salt Stress in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

          Salinity tolerance is highly desirable to sustain alfalfa production in marginal lands that have been rendered saline. In this study, we used a diverse panel of 198 alfalfa accessions for mapping loci associated with plant growth and forage production under salt stress using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The plants were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping four agronomic and physiological traits affected by salt stress, including dry weight (DW), plant height (PH), leaf chlorophyll content (LCC), and stomatal conductance (SC). For each trait, a stress susceptibility index (SSI) was used to evaluate plant performance under stressed and non-stressed conditions. Marker-trait association identified a total of 42 markers significantly associated with salt tolerance. They were located on all chromosomes except chromosome 2 based on the alignment of their flanking sequences to the reference genome (*Medicago truncatula*). Of those identified, 13 were associated with multiple traits. Several loci identified in the present study were also identified in previous reports. BLAST search revealed that 19 putative candidate genes linked to 24 significant markers. Among them, B3 DNA-binding protein, Thiaminepyrophosphokinase and IQ calmodulin-binding motif protein were identified among multiple traits in the present and previous studies. With further investigation, these markers and candidates would be useful for developing markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced tolerance to salt stress.

          Data from: Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphic Loci Associated with Biomass Yield under Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

            Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and genome-wide association to identify marker loci associated with biomass yield under drought in the field in a panel of diverse germplasm of alfalfa.

            Data from: Chondroitin sulfate disaccharides modified the structure and function of the murine gut microbiome under healthy and stressed conditions

              Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been widely used for medical and nutraceutical purposes due to its roles in maintaining tissue structural integrity. We investigated if CS disaccharides may act as a bioactive compound and modulate gut microbial composition in mice. Our data show that CS disaccharides supplementation for 16 days significantly reduced blood LPS in the mice experiencing exhaustive exercise stress. CS disaccharides partially restored total fecal short-chain fatty acids from the level significantly repressed in mice under the stress. Our findings demonstrated that CS was likely butyrogenic and resulted in a significant increase in fecal butyrate concentration. CS disaccharides had a profound impact on gut microbial composition, affecting the abundance of 13.6% and 7.3% Operational Taxonomic Units in fecal microbial communities in healthy and stressed mice, respectively. CS disaccharides reduced the prevalence of inflammatory Proteobacteria. Together, our findings demonstrated that CS may ameliorate stress-induced intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, CS significantly increased intestinal *Bacteroides acidifaciens* population, indirectly exerting its immunomodulatory effect on the intestine. CS disaccharides had a significant impact on a broad range of biological pathways under stressed condition, such as ABC transporters, two-component systems, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results will facilitate the development of CS as a bioactive nutraceutical.