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Data from: Chondroitin sulfate disaccharides modified the structure and function of the murine gut microbiome under healthy and stressed conditions

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been widely used for medical and nutraceutical purposes due to its roles in maintaining tissue structural integrity. We investigated if CS disaccharides may act as a bioactive compound and modulate gut microbial composition in mice. Our data show that CS disaccharides supplementation for 16 days significantly reduced blood LPS in the mice experiencing exhaustive exercise stress. CS disaccharides partially restored total fecal short-chain fatty acids from the level significantly repressed in mice under the stress. Our findings demonstrated that CS was likely butyrogenic and resulted in a significant increase in fecal butyrate concentration. CS disaccharides had a profound impact on gut microbial composition, affecting the abundance of 13.6% and 7.3% Operational Taxonomic Units in fecal microbial communities in healthy and stressed mice, respectively. CS disaccharides reduced the prevalence of inflammatory Proteobacteria. Together, our findings demonstrated that CS may ameliorate stress-induced intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, CS significantly increased intestinal *Bacteroides acidifaciens* population, indirectly exerting its immunomodulatory effect on the intestine. CS disaccharides had a significant impact on a broad range of biological pathways under stressed condition, such as ABC transporters, two-component systems, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results will facilitate the development of CS as a bioactive nutraceutical.

    Data from: Proteomics analysis reveals novel host molecular mechanisms associated with thermotherapy of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected citrus plants

      The goal of this study is to identify potential Las resistance/tolerance-related genes in citrus plants for application in breeding or genetic engineering programs, and apply comparative proteomics analysis via 2-DE and mass spectrometry to elucidate the molecular processes associated with heat-induced mitigation of HLB in citrus plants.

      Data from: Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection

        Virulence shifts in populations of *Puccinia striiformis* f. sp. *tritici* (*Pst*), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of *Pst*, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments.

        Data from: Key molecular processes of the diapause to post‐diapause quiescence transition in the alfalfa leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata identified by comparative transcriptome analysis

          Insect diapause (dormancy) synchronizes an insect's life cycle to seasonal changes in the abiotic and biotic resources required for development and reproduction. Transcription analysis of diapause to post‐diapause quiescent transition in the alfalfa leafcutting bee *Megachile rotundata* Fabricius identifies 643 post‐diapause up‐regulated gene transcripts and 242 post‐diapause down‐regulated transcripts. The log2 fold change in gene expression levels ranges from −5 to 7. Transcripts from several pivotal diapause‐related processes, including chromatin remodelling, cellular signalling pathways, microRNA processing, anaerobic glycolysis, cell cycle arrest and neuroendocrine control, are identified as being differentially expressed during the diapause to post‐diapause transition. In conjunction with studies from other insect species, the data indicate that there are several common mechanisms of diapause control and maintenance.

          Data from: The Majority of Genotypes of the Virulence Gene inlA Are Intact among Natural Watershed Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from the Central California Coast

            Internalin A is an essential virulence gene involved in the uptake of the foodborne pathogen *Listeria monocytogenes* into host cells. It is intact in clinical strains and often truncated due to Premature Stop Codons (PMSCs) in isolates from processed foods and processing facilities. Less information is known about environmental isolates. We sequenced the inlA alleles and did Multi Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) on 112 *L. monocytogenes* isolates from a 3-year period from naturally contaminated watersheds near a leafy green growing area in Central California.

            Data from: Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

              Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. *Hordeum vulgare* subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in *H. vulgare* subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in *H. vulgare* subsp. spontaneum.

              Data from: Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects

                Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs).