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The Bushland, Texas Soybean Datasets

2019 soybean crop at a large, precision weighing lysimeter, Bushland, Texas

This parent dataset (collection of datasets) describes the general organization of data in the datasets for the 1995, 2003, 2004, 2010 and 2019 growing seasons (years) when soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was grown for seed grain at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Laboratory (CPRL), Soil and Water Management Research Unit (SWMRU), Bushland, Texas (Lat. 35.186714°, Long. -102.094189°, elevation 1170 m above MSL). In 1995, 2003, 2004, and 2010, soybean was grown for seed grain on two large, precision weighing lysimeters, each in the center of a 4.44 ha square field also seeded to soybean. The two fields were contiguous, arranged along a north-south axis, and were labeled northeast (NE), and southeast (SE). In 2019, soybean was grown on four large, precision weighing lysimeters, and on the 4.44 ha square fields surrounding each lysimeter, which were contiguous and labeled NE, SE, and northwest (NW), and southwest (SW). See the resource titled "Geographic Coordinates, USDA, ARS, Bushland, Texas" for UTM geographic coordinates for field and lysimeter locations. In 1995, 2003, 2004, and 2010, the fields were irrigated by a linear move sprinkler system equipped with mid elevation spray applicators (MESA). In 2019, the NW and SW fields were irrigated with the linear move sprinkler system equipped with low elevation spray applicators (LESA), while the NE and SE lysimeters and fields were irrigated by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) with drip tape spaced at 1.52 m in the middle of every other interrow and buried at 0.30 to 0.32 m. Both full and deficit irrigations were applied to fields in 1995, 2003, and 2004. The 2010 crop was grown as a dryland crop with no irrigation other than an initial irrigation to establish the crop. In 2019, full irrigation was applied to all four lysimeters and fields. Except for 2010 and 2019, irrigations on a least one lysimeter were managed to replenish soil water used by the crop on a weekly or more frequent basis as determined by soil profile water content readings made with a neutron probe from 0.10- to 2.4-m depth in the field. The number and spacing of neutron probe reading locations changed through the years (additional sites were added), which is one reason why subsidiary datasets and data dictionaries are needed. The lysimeters and fields were planted to the same plant density, row spacing, tillage depth (by hand on the lysimeters and by machine in the fields), and fertilizer and pesticide applications. The weighing lysimeters were used to measure relative soil water storage to 0.05 mm accuracy at 5-minute intervals, and the 5-minute change in soil water storage was used along with precipitation, dew and frost accumulation, and irrigation amounts to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ET), which is reported at 15-minute intervals. Each lysimeter was equipped with a suite of instruments to sense wind speed, air temperature and humidity, radiant energy (incoming and reflected, typically both shortwave and longwave), surface temperature, soil heat flux, and soil temperature, all of which are reported at 15-minute intervals. Instruments used changed from season to season, which is another reason that subsidiary datasets and data dictionaries for each season are required.

Important conventions concerning the data-time correspondence, sign conventions, and terminology specific to the USDA ARS, Bushland, TX, field operations are given in the resource titled "Conventions for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets".

There are six datasets in this collection. Common symbols and abbreviations used in the datasets are defined in the resource titled, "Symbols and Abbreviations for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets". Datasets consist of Excel (xlsx) files. Each xlsx file contains an Introductory tab that explains the other tabs, lists the authors, describes conventions and symbols used and lists any instruments used. The remaining tabs in a file consist of dictionary and data tabs. There is a dictionary tab for every data tab. The name of the dictionary tab contains the name of the corresponding data tab. Tab names are unique so that if individual tabs were saved to CSV files, each CSV file in the entire collection would have a different name. The six datasets, according to their titles, are as follows:

See the README for descriptions of each dataset.

The soil is a Pullman series fine, mixed, superactive, thermic Torrertic Paleustoll. Soil properties are given in the resource titled "Soil Properties for the Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets". The land slope is <1% and topography is flat. The mean annual precipitation is ~470 mm, the 20-year pan evaporation record indicates ~2,600 mm Class A pan evaporation per year, and winds are typically from the South and Southwest. The climate is semi-arid with ~70% (350 mm) of the annual precipitation occurring from May to September, during which period the pan evaporation averages ~1520 mm.

These datasets originate from research aimed at determining crop water use (ET), crop coefficients for use in ET-based irrigation scheduling based on a reference ET, crop growth, yield, harvest index, and crop water productivity as affected by irrigation method, timing, amount (full or some degree of deficit), agronomic practices, cultivar, and weather. Prior publications have described the facilities and research methods, and have focused on ET, crop coefficients, and crop water productivity. Crop coefficients have been used by ET networks for irrigation management. The data have utility for testing simulation models of crop ET, growth, and yield.

Resources in this dataset:

  • Resource Title: README - Bushland Texas Soybean collection.
    File Name: README_Bushland_soybean_collection.pdf.
    Resource Description: Descriptions of the datasets in the Bushland Texas Soybean collection.
Release Date
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Area
POLYGON ((-102.09906463948 35.191719970106, -102.07671433134 35.19121493622, -102.07678299485 35.1865853205, -102.07609634934 35.177044674547, -102.09913330298 35.177072738625))
Ag Data Commons
Temporal Coverage
January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2019
Contact Name
Evett, Steven R.
Contact Email
Public Access Level
Program Code
005:040 - Department of Agriculture - National Research
Bureau Code
005:18 - Agricultural Research Service