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The Bushland, Texas, Winter Wheat Datasets

Winter wheat in late autumn on a large weighing lysimeter field at USDA ARS, Bushland, Texas

This parent dataset (collection of datasets) describes the general organization of data in the datasets for each growing season (two-year period) when winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown for grain at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Laboratory (CPRL), Soil and Water Management Research Unit (SWMRU), Bushland, Texas (Lat. 35.186714°, Long. -102.094189°, elevation 1170 m above MSL). Winter wheat was grown on two large, precision weighing lysimeters, calibrated to NIST standards (Howell et al., 1995). Each lysimeter was in the center of a 4.44 ha square field on which wheat was also grown (Evett et al., 2000). The two fields were contiguous and arranged with one directly north of the other. See the resource titled "Geographic Coordinates, USDA, ARS, Bushland, Texas" for UTM geographic coordinates for field and lysimeter locations. Wheat was planted in Autumn and grown over the winter in 1989-1990, 1991-1992, and 1992-1993. Agronomic calendar for the each of the three growing seasons list by date the agronomic practices applied, severe weather, and activities (e.g., planting, thinning, fertilization, pesticide application, lysimeter maintenance, harvest) in and on lysimeters that could influence crop growth, water use, and lysimeter data. These include fertilizer and pesticide applications. Irrigation was by linear move sprinkler system equipped with pressure regulated low pressure sprays (mid-elevation spray application, MESA). Irrigations were managed to replenish soil water used by the crop on a weekly or more frequent basis as determined by soil profile water content readings made with a field-calibrated (Evett and Steiner, 1995) neutron probe from 0.10- to 2.4-m depth in the field. The lysimeters and fields were planted to the same plant density, row spacing, tillage depth (by hand on the lysimeters and by machine in the fields), and fertilizer and pesticide applications. The weighing lysimeters were used to measure relative soil water storage to 0.05 mm accuracy at 5-min intervals, and the 5-min change in soil water storage was used along with precipitation, dew and frost accumulation, and irrigation amounts to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ET), which is reported at 15-min intervals. Each lysimeter was equipped with a suite of instruments to sense wind speed, air temperature and humidity, radiant energy (incoming and reflected, typically both shortwave and longwave), surface temperature, soil heat flux, and soil temperature, all of which are reported at 15-min intervals. Instruments used changed from season to season, which is another reason that subsidiary datasets and data dictionaries for each season are required. The Bushland weighing lysimeter research program was described by Evett et al. (2016), and lysimeter design is described by Marek et al. (1988). Important conventions concerning the data-time correspondence, sign conventions, and terminology specific to the USDA ARS, Bushland, TX, field operations are given in the resource titled "Conventions for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets".

There are six datasets in this collection. Common symbols and abbreviations used in the datasets are defined in the resource titled, "Symbols and Abbreviations for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets". Datasets consist of Excel (xlsx) files. Each xlsx file contains an Introductory tab that explains the other tabs, lists the authors, describes conventions and symbols used and lists any instruments used. The remaining tabs in a file consist of dictionary and data tabs. The six datasets are as follows:

See the README for descriptions of each dataset.

The soil is a Pullman series fine, mixed, superactive, thermic Torrertic Paleustoll. Soil properties are given in the resource titled "Soil Properties for the Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets". The land slope in the lysimeter fields is <0.3% and topography is flat. The mean annual precipitation is ~470 mm, the 20-year pan evaporation record indicates ~2,600 mm Class A pan evaporation per year, and winds are typically from the South and Southwest. The climate is semi-arid with ~70% (350 mm) of the annual precipitation occurring from May to September, during which period the pan evaporation averages ~1520 mm.
These datasets originate from research aimed at determining crop water use (ET), crop coefficients for use in ET-based irrigation scheduling based on a reference ET, crop growth, yield, harvest index, and crop water productivity as affected by irrigation method, timing, amount (full or some degree of deficit), agronomic practices, cultivar, and weather. Prior publications have described the facilities and research methods (Evett et al., 2016), and have focused on winter wheat ET (Howell et al., 1995, 1997, 1998), and crop coefficients (Howell et al., 2006; Schneider and Howell, 1997, 2001) that have been used by ET networks for irrigation management. The data have utility for developing, calibrating, and testing simulation models of crop ET, growth, and yield (Evett et al., 1994; Kang et al., 2009), and have been used by several universities and for testing, and calibrating models of ET that use satellite and/or weather data.

Resources in this dataset:

  • Resource Title: Geographic Coordinates of Experimental Assets, Weighing Lysimeter Experiments, USDA, ARS, Bushland, Texas.
    File Name: Geographic Coordinates, USDA, ARS, Bushland, Texas.xlsx.
    Resource Description: The file gives the UTM latitude and longitude of important experimental assets of the Bushland, Texas, USDA, ARS, Conservation & Production Research Laboratory (CPRL). Locations include weather stations [Soil and Water Management Research Unit (SWMRU) and CPRL], large weighing lysimeters, and corners of fields within which each lysimeter was centered. There were four fields designated NE, SE, NW, and SW, and a weighing lysimeter was centered in each field. The SWMRU weather station was adjacent to and immediately east of the NE and SE lysimeter fields.

  • Resource Title: Conventions for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets.
    File Name: Conventions for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets.xlsx.
    Resource Description: Descriptions of conventions and terminology used in the Bushland, TX, weighing lysimeter research program.

  • Resource Title: Symbols and Abbreviations for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets.
    File Name: Symbols and Abbreviations for Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets.xlsx.
    Resource Description: Definitions of symbols and abbreviations used in the Bushland, TX, weighing lysimeter research datasets.

  • Resource Title: Soil Properties for the Bushland, TX, Weighing Lysimeter Datasets.
    File Name: Bushland_TX_soil_properties.xlsx.
    Resource Description: Soil properties useful for simulation modeling and for describing the soil are given for the Pullman soil series at the USDA, ARS, Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, TX, USA. For each soil layer, soil horizon designation and texture according to USDA Soil Taxonomy, bulk density, porosity, water content at field capacity (33 kPa) and permanent wilting point (1500 kPa), percent sand, percent silt, percent clay, percent organic matter, pH, and van Genuchten-Mualem characteristic curve parameters describing the soil hydraulic properties are given. A separate table describes the soil horizon thicknesses, designations, and textures according to USDA Soil Taxonomy. Another table describes important aspects of the soil hydrologic and rooting behavior.

  • Resource Title: README - Bushland Texas Winter Wheat collection.
    File Name: README_Bushland_winter_wheat_collection.pdf.
    Resource Description: Descriptions of the datasets in the Bushland Texas Winter Wheat collection

Release Date
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Area
POLYGON ((-102.09906463948 35.191719970106, -102.07671433134 35.19121493622, -102.07678299485 35.1865853205, -102.07609634934 35.177044674547, -102.09913330298 35.177072738625))
Ag Data Commons
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Location
Bushland, Texas
Temporal Coverage
January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1993
Contact Name
Evett, Steven R.
Contact Email
Public Access Level
Program Code
005:040 - Department of Agriculture - National Research
Bureau Code
005:18 - Agricultural Research Service