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Data from: Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations

Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations

Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed.

Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values.

Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20–22; women: 50%; age: 50–80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method.

Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect.

Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01023646.

Dataset Info

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FieldValue
Authors
Meng, Huicui
Matthan, Nirupa R.
Ausman, Lynne M.
Lichtenstein, Alice H.
(ORCID)
Intended Use
To determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values.
Publisher
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Contact Name
Lichtenstein, Alice H.
Contact Email
Public Access Level
Public
Preferred Dataset Citation
Meng, H., Matthan, N. R., Ausman, L. M., & Lichtenstein, A. H. (2017). Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations, <em>American Journal of Clinical Nutrition</em> 105(4), 842–853. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.144162
Primary Article

Meng, H., Matthan, N. R., Ausman, L. M., & Lichtenstein, A. H. (2017). Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105(4), 842–853.

License
Funding Source(s)
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agreement 58-1950-4-401
Dataset DOI (digital object identifier)
10.3945/ajcn.116.144162
Modified Date
2018-09-25
Release Date
2018-09-25
Ag Data Commons Keywords: 
  • Food & Nutrition
  • Nutrition
  • Food & Nutrition
  • Food composition
  • Food & Nutrition
User-supplied Tags: