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Data Extent

Data from: Efficacy of deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl in layer-treated maize against the larger grain borer and the maize weevil

Diagram of grain layer treatment illustrating layer sizes

Two grain surface treatment insecticides (deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl were evaluated in laboratory assays as a surface treatment for maize to control adult Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus zeamais. Both insecticides were applied to 20 g of maize placed in a vial or to the upper one half, one fourth, or one-eighth layer of the maize. Insects were either added to the vials before or after the maize. Mortality, progeny production, and insect damaged kernels (IDK) were then evaluated for each vial. Introduction method (before or after) did not have any impact on any of the variables. Mortality was nearly 100% for all treatments for both insecticides for P. truncatus. Subsequently, progeny production and the number of insect damaged kernels was very low or zero for P. truncatus. Mortality for S. zeamais remained low across layer treatments for deltamethrin. However, S. zeamais was easily controlled by primiphos-methyl. The results of this laboratory study show that while deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl has some effectiveness as a layer treatment on a column of maize, efficacy will be dependent on the target species, and the depth of the treated layer, as well as the location on which the insects are present.

Resources in this dataset:

  • Resource Title: Grain Layer Experiment with P. truncatus & Sitophilus zeamais
    File Name: quellhorst_etal_layer_experiment.csv
    Description: Insect Mortality on Treated Maize and Progeny Production. For each replicate, 500 g of maize were treated with each insecticide or H2O (e.g., control) as described above. Before proceeding with the experiments, the grain moisture content (m.c.) was assessed, using a moisture meter (mini GAC plus, Dickey-John Europe S.A.S., Colombes, France). The standard plastic cylindrical vials of the Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology (LEAZ) were used (3 × 8 cm in diameter by height, Rotilabo Sample tins Snap on lid, Carl Roth, Germany). These were filled with 20g of maize. In each vial, we treated either all the grain (1/1), 1/2, 1/4 or 1/8 of the maize with one of the two insecticides (deltamethrin or pirimiphos-methyl) at the labeled rate. We also either placed the insects at the bottom of the vial (before the maize has been added) or at the top (after the maize has been added). Sets A, B, and C were treated with insecticide on separate days. Insects were given 14 days before mortality counts were performed. After this interval, the mortality was assessed. It is difficult to estimate the upper 1/8 etc. of maize, therefore we based our experiments on ratios of 20 g treated, 20 g untreated, 10 g treated with 10 g untreated, 5 g treated with 15 g untreated and 2 g treated with 18 g untreated. The exact quantities of the samples were weighed with a Precisa XB3200D compact balance (Alpha Analytical Instruments, Gerakas, Greece). The upper rings of the vials were treated with Fluon (Northern Products Inc., Woonsocket, USA) to prevent insects from moving away from the grain and or escaping. The top of each vial also had small holes punched to allow ventilation. Each vial then received 10 P. truncatus adults of mixed sex and age from the Tanzania strain or 10 S. zeamais from Brazil. The vials were placed inside incubators set at 30°C and 65% R.H. After the parental mortality count, all adults were removed, and the vials with maize were returned to the incubator at the conditions indicated above. Sixty days later, the vials were opened again to check progeny production and the number of insect damaged kernels (IDK).
    For each combination, e.g., insecticide × insect species, there were three replicates with three subreplicates (total 3 × 3 = 9 vials or replicates per combination). There were 2 insecticides × 2 insect species × 4 grain treatments (1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8) × 2 insect introduction methods (before or after) × 9 replicates/subreplicates = 288 vials total, 5760 g of maize, 10 insects per vial × 288 = 2880 total (1440 per LAGB and MW). We also had a separate set of vials for the control with no insecticide= 9 × 2 insect species = 18 vials, 360 g of maize, and 180 insects (90 per species).
Release Date
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Area
POINT (22.934474945068 39.367350181297)
Ag Data Commons
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Location
Volos, Greece
Temporal Coverage
August 1, 2022 to November 30, 2022
Contact Name
Morrison, William
Contact Email
Public Access Level
Program Code
005:040 - Department of Agriculture - National Research
Bureau Code
005:18 - Agricultural Research Service