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Data from: Plant, grain, and soil response of irrigated malt barley as affected by cultivar, phosphorus, and sulfur applications on an alkaline soil

This is the raw data that was used for the publication by Dari et al., 2019a.

This study was funded by the Idaho Barley Commission.

Experiment Description
This study investigated the effects of cultivar and fertilizer phosphorus and sulfur applications on two-row malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in alkaline soil. The study took place at the Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho (42.95, -112.83) during the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons. The soil was a Declo loam (Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Xeric Haplocalcids) with 0 to 2% slopes. The previous crop grown was barley for both years. Plots were 1.5 by 5.5 m and consisted of seven rows spaced 18 cm apart. Plots were seeded with a small-plot planter on 7 April 2015 and 8 April 2016 at a rate of 2 million seeds ha-1.

The experimental design was a split-split-plot where the main-plot factor was P application rate, split-plot factor was S application rate, and split-split plot factor was cultivar. Five fertilizer P treatment rates (0, 37, 73, 110, and 147 kg P ha-1) were applied prior to planting as mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP; 11-52-0). The MAP was supplemented with urea (45-0-0) to achieve 212 kg N ha-1 total N (soil inorganic N + applied N). Three treatment fertilizer S rates (0, 112, and 224 kg S ha-1) were applied prior to planting as elemental-S (0-0-0-90). The two cultivars grown were ABI-Voyager and Moravian 69. Treatments were replicated in four blocks with independent randomization structures within each. All fertilizer was applied by hand and incorporated using a spring-tooth harrow. All plots were irrigated. Plots were managed for weeds and insects according to University of Idaho recommendations (Robertson & Stark, 2003).

Soil Sampling and Analysis
Initial bulk pre-plant soil fertility was determined according to Miller et al. (2013) from eight soil subsamples taken from 0 to 30 and 30 to 60 cm depths prior to fertilization and planting. Inorganic-N (ammonium-N and nitrate-N) was determined by 2M KCl extract and spectrophotometric analysis. Sulfate-S (SO4-S) was determined by the calcium phosphate method, and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by pressure calcimeter based on procedures described by Sherrod et al. (2002). The soil at the experimental sites were alkaline (initial soil pH of 8.4 in 1:1 soil: deionized water) with substantial carbonate content (112 to 152 g CaCO3 kg 1).

Soil samples were taken from individual plots prior to planting and fertilization (16 March 2015 and 17 March 2016) as well as after harvest (17 August 2015 and 17 August 2016). Soil composites from each plot included four soil cores (2.5 cm diameter) collected from 0 to 30 cm depths. Samples were dried at 40 ºC, crushed, and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined potentiometrically using a 1:1 soil to deionized water ratio (Miller et al., 2013) using a soil pH meter (Orion StarTM A215 pH/Conductivity Benchtop Multiparameter meter, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA). Soil samples were analyzed by the standard Olsen P/bicarbonate analysis (Dari et al. 2019b) based on Olsen et al. (1954) using a 1:20 soil to solution ratio and measured colorimetrically on a flow injection analyzer (Skalar San + +, Skalar, Breda, Netherlands).

Plant Harvest and Analysis
Plant height from the soil surface to the spike apex (not including awns) was measured at maturity. Aboveground samples were collected and dried at 65 ºC to determine total biological yield. Vegetative tissue and spikes were ground to pass a 1-mm sieve using a Wiley Mill (Thomas Scientific, Swedesboro, NJ, USA) and analyzed separately for P concentration by nitric acid digestion via inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) analysis on a Spectro Arcos ICP (Kleve, Germany) (Jones & Case, 1990).

Plots were harvested with a small plot combine on 14 August 2015 and 10 August 2016. Grain yield was corrected to a moisture content of 120 g kg-1. Plumps and 5.5/64 kernel content for two-row malt barley are defined as the percentages barley grain that remains on top of a 6/64x 3/4 and 5.5/64 x 3/4 slotted-hole sieve after sieving, respectively, and thin kernels (Pan %) are the percentages of seeds which pass through a 5.5/64 x 3/4 slotted hole sieve (USDA 1997, 2013). For the determination of protein, approximately 50 g of grain samples were dried at 65 ºC to a constant weight and then ground to pass a 1-mm screen. Ground samples were used to measure N and protein concentration in grain by dry combustion using a VarioMax CN analyzer (Americas, Ronkonkoma, NY, USA).

Dari, B., Rogers, C. W., & Liang, X. (2019a). Plant, grain, and soil response of irrigated malt barley as affected by cultivar, phosphorus, and sulfur applications on an alkaline soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 42:1061-1071. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2019.1589504

Dari, B., Rogers, C. W., Leytem, A., & Schroeder, K. (2019b). Evaluation of soil test phosphorus extractants in Idaho soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2018.08.0314.

Jones, J. B., & Case, V. W. (1990). Sampling, handling, and analyzing plant tissue samples. In Soil testing and plant analysis, ed. R. L. Westerman. 3rd ed. Madison, WY: Soil Science Society of America.

Miller, R. O., Gavlak, R., & Horneck, D. (2013). Soil, plant, and water reference methods for the western region. 4th ed. http://www.naptprogram.org/files/napt/publications/method-papers/western....

Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S., & Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agricultural Circular 939. https://archive.org/details/estimationofavai939olse

Robertson, L. D., & Stark, J. C. (2003). Idaho spring barley production guide. Bul. 742. University of Idaho Extension, Moscow, ID. http://www.extension.uidaho.edu/publishing/pdf/Bul/Bul0742.pdf

Sherrod, L. A., Dunn, G., Peterson, G. A., & Kolberg, R. L. (2002). Inorganic carbon analysis by modified pressure-calcimeter method. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66 (1):299–305. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.2990.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (1997). Subpart B – United States standards for barley. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/BarleyStandards.pdf

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (2013). Grain inspection handbook: Book II. General Information. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Book2.pdf

Release Date
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Area
POINT (-112.83 42.95)
Ag Data Commons
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Location
University of Idaho, Aberdeen Research and Extension Center Aberdeen, ID, USA
Temporal Coverage
April 7, 2015 to August 10, 2016
Contact Name
Rogers, Christopher W.
Contact Email
Public Access Level