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Data Extent

USDA/ARS Kimberly, ID - Furrow Infiltration and Erosion Data, 1998 to 2016

The data are derived from the field monitoring of irrigated furrows from 1998 to 2016 at the research farm of the USDA/ARS-Northwest Irrigation and Water Research Laboratory in Kimberly, Idaho, USA (south-central Idaho). For each monitored furrow, irrigation inflow rates, outflow rates, and sediment concentrations were recorded periodically during the irrigation. A gated pipe conveyed irrigation water across the plots at the head, or inflow-end, of the furrows and adjustable spigots supplied water to each irrigated furrow. The methodology used to obtain the field data is described by Lentz and Sojka (2009). Inflows were measured by timing the filling rate of a known volume, and runoff were measured with long-throated, v-notch flumes. Outflows were measured and runoff samples collected at 30 min intervals during the first 1-3 hr of an irrigation, and every hour or two for the next 3 to 5 hr. If the set was continued for an additional 12 hr, two to four additional measurements were made. Immediately after each flume reading, sediment concentration in furrow streams were measured by collecting one-liter runoff samples from free-flowing flume discharge. The weight of sediment per liter of runoff was determined from the settled volume of sediment using the Imhoff-cone technique. Three Imhoff-cone sediment samples were collected from each treatment in each irrigation. These were filtered, and the papers dried and weighed. A calibration function relating the 30-min, settled-sediment volume to sediment mass-per-unit-volume of runoff was then calculated and used to convert settled sediment volume in cones to sediment mass.

The field data for each study or year were analyzed using the WASHOUT program (Lentz and Sojka, 1995). The WASHOUT program produces an output file (filename.out), which become components of this Ag Data Commons data set.

For many years and irrigations, furrows were monitored at one or more locations along the furrow, as well as at the end (bottom) of the furrow. In these cases, data for each position within the furrow are listed in the data set, labelled for example as "Top", "Middle", and "Bottom" (See Data Dictionary tab). For each furrow position the data represent the flow, infiltration, and runoff information for the length of furrow, which begins at its inflow end (top of the field) and ends at the defined furrow position. This distance is listed in the field data file for each furrow and irrigation.

An Irrigation Data Summary is included as a tab in the data set spreadsheet. This is a summary list of the studies and irrigations that are included in the data set. Also included is a PAM-Application-Codes tab that lists description of the polyacrylamide (PAM) treatments that were employed in some of the included studies.

Dataset Info

These fields are compatible with DCAT, an RDF vocabulary designed to facilitate interoperability between data catalogs published on the Web.
Lentz, Rodrick
Product Type
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Area
POLYGON ((-114.36356592196 42.506777600296, -114.36356592196 42.516014945303, -114.35077714938 42.516014945303, -114.35077714938 42.506777600296))
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Location
Kimberly, Idaho, USA (south-central Idaho)
Temporal Coverage
Intended Use
The Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory (NWISRL) water availability and watershed management program conducts research related to hydrologic processes and agronomic factors that control water availability and quality. The NWISRL database provides a basis for evaluating temporal variability in furrow irrigation infiltration, runoff, and sediment load under typical agricultural scenarios. These data also can be used to investigate annual effects on furrow infiltration and soil erosion. These processes are not well understood. Furrow infiltration, runoff, and sediment discharge data from NWISRL have been particularly valuable for understanding the complex relationships between infiltration, erosion, percolation, and nutrient-loss processes in surface-irrigated agricultural landscapes. The data has also played a crucial role in the development of new irrigation management practices.
Use Limitations
Outflow rates were measured and runoff water samples were collected to determine sediment concentrations at one-half hour intervals early in the irrigation, every hour during the mid-irrigation period, and every two hours thereafter, when irrigation outflows and sediment loads had stabilized (typically after 7 h or more into the set). For 12-hour irrigations the final irrigation measurement was made at approximately 11 to12 h into the irrigation set (~7:30 pm). For 24-hour irrigations prior to 2001, another measurement was made 18 hours into the irrigation (~1:30 am), with a final reading at the end of the irrigation. For 24-hour irrigations monitored after 2001, no 18-hour measurement was made, only a final reading was made at 24 hours. Previous monitoring experience had shown that the 12-hour and 24-hour readings provided a reasonably accurate mean flow and infiltration measurements for the over-night period. Thus dynamic changes in furrow irrigation inflows and outflows caused by diurnal factors are not captured in the second half of a 24 hour irrigation, only a cumulative and 12-hour average values.
Ag Data Commons
Contact Name
Lentz, Rodrick (Rick)
Contact Email
Public Access Level
Primary Article

Lentz, R., & Sojka, R. (2009). Long-Term Polyacrylamide Formulation Effects on Soil Erosion, Water Infiltration, and Yields of Furrow-Irrigated Crops. Agronomy Journal, 101(2), 305.

Methods Citation

Lentz, R.D. & Sojka, R.E. (1995). Monitoring software for pollutant components in furrow irrigation runoff. In L. Ahuja, J. Leppert, K. Rojas, and E. Seely (eds.) Proc. Workshop on Computer Applications in Water Management (pp.123-127). 23-25 May 1995, Colorado State University Water Resources Research Institute Info. Series No. 79. Retrieved from https://eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov/912/1/903.pdf

Bjorneberg, David L.
Funding Source(s)
Agricultural Research Service
Dataset DOI (digital object identifier)
Program Code
005:037 - Department of Agriculture - Research and Education
Bureau Code
005:18 - Agricultural Research Service
ARIS Log Number
357 507
Modified Date
Release Date
Ag Data Commons Keywords: 
  • Agroecosystems & Environment
  • Water
  • Agroecosystems & Environment
  • Soil
  • Agroecosystems & Environment
State or Territory: