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Data Extent

X-ray CT data with semantic annotations for the paper "A workflow for segmenting soil and plant X-ray CT images with deep learning in Google’s Colaboratory"

3D representations of a Walnut leaf, an almond bud, and a soil aggregate generated by the a fully connected network trained using the data in this repository

Leaves from genetically unique Juglans regia plants were scanned using X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) on the X-ray μCT beamline (8.3.2) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA USA).

Soil samples were collected in Fall of 2017 from the riparian oak forest located at the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agricultural Institute at the University of California Davis. The soil was sieved through a 2 mm mesh and was air dried before imaging. A single soil aggregate was scanned at 23 keV using the 10x objective lens with a pixel resolution of 650 nanometers on beamline 8.3.2 at the ALS.

Additionally, a drought stressed almond flower bud (Prunus dulcis) from a plant housed at the University of California, Davis, was scanned using a 4x lens with a pixel resolution of 1.72 µm on beamline 8.3.2 at the ALS

Raw tomographic image data was reconstructed using TomoPy. Reconstructions were converted to 8-bit tif or png format using ImageJ or the PIL package in Python before further processing. Images were annotated using Intel’s Computer Vision Annotation Tool (CVAT) and ImageJ. Both CVAT and ImageJ are free to use and open source. Leaf images were annotated in following Théroux-Rancourt et al. (2020). Specifically, Hand labeling was done directly in ImageJ by drawing around each tissue; with 5 images annotated per leaf. Care was taken to cover a range of anatomical variation to help improve the generalizability of the models to other leaves. All slices were labeled by Dr. Mina Momayyezi and Fiona Duong.To annotate the flower bud and soil aggregate, images were imported into CVAT. The exterior border of the bud (i.e. bud scales) and flower were annotated in CVAT and exported as masks. Similarly, the exterior of the soil aggregate and particulate organic matter identified by eye were annotated in CVAT and exported as masks. To annotate air spaces in both the bud and soil aggregate, images were imported into ImageJ. A gaussian blur was applied to the image to decrease noise and then the air space was segmented using thresholding. After applying the threshold, the selected air space region was converted to a binary image with white representing the air space and black representing everything else. This binary image was overlaid upon the original image and the air space within the flower bud and aggregate was selected using the “free hand” tool. Air space outside of the region of interest for both image sets was eliminated. The quality of the air space annotation was then visually inspected for accuracy against the underlying original image; incomplete annotations were corrected using the brush or pencil tool to paint missing air space white and incorrectly identified air space black. Once the annotation was satisfactorily corrected, the binary image of the air space was saved. Finally, the annotations of the bud and flower or aggregate and organic matter were opened in ImageJ and the associated air space mask was overlaid on top of them forming a three-layer mask suitable for training the fully convolutional network. All labeling of the soil aggregate and soil aggregate images was done by Dr. Devin Rippner.

These images and annotations are for training deep learning models to identify different constituents in leaves, almond buds, and soil aggregates

For the walnut leaves, some tissues (stomata, etc.) are not labeled and only represent a small portion of a full leaf. Similarly, both the almond bud and the aggregate represent just one single sample of each. The bud tissues are only divided up into buds scales, flower, and air space. Many other tissues remain unlabeled. For the soil aggregate annotated labels are done by eye with no actual chemical information. Therefore particulate organic matter identification may be incorrect.

Release Date
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Area
POINT (-121.87222194698 38.538663827994)
POINT (-121.75111484554 38.532670036266)
Ag Data Commons
Temporal Coverage
October 22, 2017
Contact Name
Rippner, Devin A.
Contact Email
Public Access Level
Program Code
005:040 - Department of Agriculture - National Research
Bureau Code
005:18 - Agricultural Research Service