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Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Lucky Hills (Carbon Dioxide and Water Flux)

    The meteorological data and Bowen ratio energy balance systems (BREB) (Model 023/CO2 Campbell Scientific Inc., Logan, Utah, USA) data are used to calculate carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes at Lucky Hills. The stored Bowen ration instrument data from the measurement site were transmitted by radio daily to our research station in Tombstone, AZ.

    Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Kendall (Carbon Dioxide and Water Flux)

      Atmospheric carbon dioxide and moisture concentrations were measured with an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) (LI-6262, LI-COR, Inc. Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). Measurements were made from 1997 through the present at the Kendall site. The meteorological data and Bowen ratio energy balance systems (BREB) (Model 023/CO2 Campbell Scientific Inc., Logan, Utah, USA) data are used to calculate carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes.

      Economic Model of Deficit Irrigation

        The model calculates net income from a crop on a unit of land based on a quadratic crop water production function, amount of effective precipitation, irrigation efficiency, cost of the irrigation water supply, crop production costs, and revenue from selling the crop. The model includes potential income from leasing out saved irrigation water. All biophysical variables are defined in terms of the relative evapotranspiration. Net income is maximized by optimizing the amount of water consumed by the crop.

        Java Newhall Simulation Model (jNSM)

          The Java Newhall Simulation Model or jNSM is a mesoscale model that is appropriate for use in regional geospatial analyses that support the MLRA update of published digital soil geographic databases (SSURGO/STATSGO2). This software can be used with monthly, serially complete records from weather stations, Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations, and local soil climate monitoring sensors.

          STARFM

            The STARFM algorithm uses comparisons of one or more pairs of observed Landsat/MODIS maps, collected on the same day, to predict maps at Landsat-scale on other MODIS observation dates. STARFM was initially developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center by Dr. Feng Gao. This version (v1.2) has been greatly improved in computing efficiency (e.g. one run for multiple dates and parallel computing) for large-area processing (Gao et al., 2015). Additional improvements (e.g. Landsat and MODIS images co-registration, daily MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance) in the operational data fusion system (Wang et al., 2014) are beyond the STARFM program and are not included in this package. Improvement and continuous maintenance are being undertaken in the USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory (HRSL), Beltsville, MD by Dr. Feng Gao.

            The Ogallala Agro-Climate Tool

              The Ogallala Agro-Climate Tool is a Visual Basic application that estimates irrigation demand and crop water use over the Ogallala Aquifer region.

              Bushland ET Calculator

                The Bushland Reference ET calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. Although it was designed and developed for use mainly by producers and crop consultants to manage irrigation scheduling, it can also be used in educational training, research, and other practical application. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Equation for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET at hourly and daily time steps. This program uses the more complex equation for estimating clear-sky solar radiation provided in Appendix D of the ASCE-EWRI ET Manual. Users have the option of using single set or time series weather data to calculate reference ET. Daily reference ET can be calculated either by summing the hourly ET values for a given day or by using averages of the climatic data.

                Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing System (BEARS) Software

                  Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the hydrologic cycle. ET data are used for a variety of water management and research purposes such as irrigation scheduling, water and crop modeling, streamflow, water availability, and many more. Remote sensing products have been widely used to create spatially representative ET data sets which provide important information from field to regional scales. As UAV capabilities increase, remote sensing use is likely to also increase. For that purpose, scientists at the USDA-ARS research laboratory in Bushland, TX developed the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing System (BEARS) software. The BEARS software is a Java based software that allows users to process remote sensing data to generate ET outputs using predefined models, or enter custom equations and models. The capability to define new equations and build new models expands the applicability of the BEARS software beyond ET mapping to any remote sensing application. The software also includes an image viewing tool that allows users to visualize outputs, as well as draw an area of interest using various shapes.

                  SPUR2

                    SPUR2 DOS ver. 2.2 is a general grassland ecosystem simulation model designed to determine beef cattle performance and production by simultaneously simulating production of up to 15 plant species on 36 heterogeneous grassland sites. SPUR2 simulates grassland hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and soil organic matter on grazed ecosystems as well as rangeland production under different climatic regimes, environmental conditions, and management alternatives.