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IncA-C Alignment

    IncA/C plasmids are a class of plasmids from Enterobacteraciae that are relatively large (49 to >180 kbp), are readily transferred by conjugation, and carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Reconstruction of the phylogeny of these plasmids has been difficult because of the high rate of remodeling by recombination-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We hypothesized that evaluation of nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the rate of HGT would help to develop a clock to show if anthropic practices have had significant influences on the lineages of the plasmid. A system was developed to rapidly sequence up to 191 known open27 reading-frames from each of 39 recently isolated IncA/C plasmids from a diverse panel of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. With these data plus sequences from Genbank we were able to distinguish six distinct lineages that had extremely low numbers of polymorphisms within each lineage, especially among the largest group designated as Lineage 1. Two regions, each about half the plasmid in size, could be distinguished with a separate lineal pattern. The distribution of Lineage 1 showed that it has migrated extremely rapidly with fewer polymorphisms than can be expected in two-thousand years. Remodeling by frequent HGT was evident with a pattern that appeared to have the highest rate just upstream of the putative conjugation origin of transfer (ori-T). It seems likely that when an IncA/C plasmid is transferred also adjacent to a multiple antimicrobial resistance gene cassette.

    Data from: Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects

      Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs).

      Genes of viral origin in the Fopius arisanus genome

        *Fopius arisanus* (Sonan) is a braconid wasp (subfamily Opiinae) and biological control agent of a broad range of tephritid fruit fly species, including the global pests Mediterranean fruit fly *Ceratitis capitata* and the Oriental fruit fly *Bactrocera dorsalis*. In an effort to create foundational genomic resources for this species, the complete genome and transcriptomes for several wasp life stages have been recently generated. Manual annotation of 55 viral genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed that *F. arisanus* has independently acquired a symbiotic virus related to alpha-nudiviruses.

        Gramene

          Gramene is a curated, open-source, integrated data resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species.

          Genome analysis of the ubiquitous boxwood pathogen Pseudonectria foliicola: A small fungal genome with an increased cohort of genes associated with loss of virulence

            Boxwood plants are affected by many different diseases caused by fungi. Some boxwood diseases are deadly and quickly kill the infected plants, but with others, the plant can survive and even thrive when infected. The fungus that causes volutella blight is the most common of these weak boxwood pathogens. Even the healthiest boxwood plants are infected by the volutella fungus, and often there are no signs that the plants are hurt by the infection. In order to understand why the volutella blight fungus is such a weak pathogen and to understand the genetic mechanisms it uses to interact with boxwood, the complete genome of the volutella fungus was sequenced and characterized. These datasets are generated from the genome sequence of *Pseudonectria foliicola*, strain ATCC13545, the fungus responsible for volutella disease of boxwood. Datasets include the nuclear genome and mitochondrial genome assemblies (sequenced using Illumina technology), the predicted gene model dataset generated using MAKER, the multiple sequence alignment of single-copy orthologs used for phylogenetic analysis, CMAP files generated from SimpleSynteny analysis of mitogenomes, and high quality photographic images.