This dataset consists of growth and yield data for sorghum [*Sorghum bicolor* (L.)] grown for grain at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Laboratory (CPRL), Soil and Water Management Research Unit (SWMRU), Bushland, Texas (Lat. 35.186714°, Long. -102.094189°, elevation 1170 m above MSL) in 1988, 1991, 1993, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2003 through 2007, 2014, and 2015 (13 years). In 2006 and 2007, sorghum was also grown for forage. Sorghum was grown on from one to four large, precision weighing lysimeters, each in the center of a 4.44 ha square field, and in those surrounding fields. Water management treatments ranged from irrigation replenishing crop water use fully every week (full) to deficit irrigations ranging down to 1/3 of full, and to dryland cropping without irrigation. Irrigation application methods included sprinkler and subsurface drip irrigation. The entire datasets for individual season years consist of soil water content, weather, crop growth and yield, agronomic calendar, water balance (evapotranspiration, precipitation, dew/frost, irrigation), and lysimeter energy and water balance data. This dataset focuses on the sorghum growth and yield data.