This dataset consists of agronomic calendars for 10 seasons of upland cotton [*Gossypium hirsutum* (L.)] grown for lint and seed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Laboratory (CPRL), Soil and Water Management Research Unit (SWMRU), Bushland, Texas (Lat. 35.186714°, Long. -102.094189°, elevation 1170 m above MSL) in 2000 through 2004, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2020, and 2021. In 2000, 2001, 2008, 2020, and 2021, cotton was grown on four large, precision weighing lysimeters, each in the center of a 4.44 ha square field. In 2002, 2010, and 2012, cotton was grown on two large, precision weighing lysimeters and their surrounding 4.44 ha square fields. In 2003 and 2004, cotton was grown on only one large weighing lysimeter in rotation with sorghum. The entire datasets for individual season years consist of soil water content, weather, crop growth and yield, agronomic calendar, water balance (evapotranspiration, precipitation, dew/frost, irrigation), and lysimeter energy and water balance data.